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All over the world, giant wave breaks appear because of underwater geology that supercharges their wave energy.
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Amplitude – The distance between the crest and trough of a wave.
Bathymetry – The measurement of depth of water in oceans, seas, or lakes.
Nazaré Canyon – An undersea canyon just off the coast of Nazaré, Portugal, in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean. It is the largest submarine canyon in Europe, reaching depths of about 5,000 meters (16,000 ft) deep and a length of about 230 kilometers (140 mi).
Plunging Breaker – Occurs when there are rapid depth changes. The crest of the wave becomes very steep, and the rear of the wave violently plunges over the front.
Reef Break – A location where waves break over a reef, often amplifying them.
Spilling Breaker – Occurs when the seafloor slopes gradually. As the wave becomes unstable, energy is dissipated by water spilling over the crest of the wave.
Swell – a slow, regular movement of the sea in rolling waves that do not break.
Wave period – The time between waves.
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